Organic farming is a farming method that involves growing crops without the use of synthetic based fertilizers and pesticides. And, no genetically modified organisms are permitted. Organic standards are designed to allow the use of naturally occurring substances while prohibiting and strictly limiting synthetic substances. Organic agriculture farming is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems, and people. And, it relies on ecological processes, biodiversity, and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than use of inputs with adverse effects.
Organic farming in Nigeria is a method that inherently incudes crop production and animal rearing. This involves the use of biological materials to avoid artificial chemicals to maintain soil fertility and ecological balance and thus reduce contamination and waste. In other words, Organic farming involves growing and nurturing crops without the use of fertilizers and pesticides based on synthetics. It is not allowed to have genetically modified organism. Organic farming is a method, which involves the cultivation of plants and rearing of animals in natural ways.
Organic farming methods combine scientific information of modern technology with traditional farming practices based on naturally occurring biological processes. Organic farming methods are mainly studied in the field of agroecology. The principal methods of organic farming contain crop rotation, green manures and compost, biological pest control, and mechanical cultivation. The organic method is done to release nutrients to the crops for increased sustainable production in an eco-friendly and pollution-free environment. It aims to produce a crop with a high nutritional value and there are various methods by which organic farming is practiced are as follows;
Crop rotation is the method of planting crops in a different area of the farm so that no single crop will be planted in the same place two or more years in a row. Crop rotation helps to keep soil structure and nutrient levels and to prevent soil-borne pests from getting a foothold in the garden. When a single crop is planted in the same place every year, the soil structure slowly deteriorates as the nutrients are used time and time again. After a few years, the soil becomes unhealthy and drained of those specific nutrients. Simultaneously, insect pests that feed on the single crop and spend their larval stage in the soil become more prolific as their food source remains. Then, these pests become harder to manage every year as their population increases. Crop rotation is beneficial for four reasons;
Plants that fixes nitrogen, such as peas and legumes, improve soil quality for future vegetables planted in the same bed
Alternating shallow-rooted plants and deep-rooted plants in a given area draws nutrients from the soil at varying depths.
Soil-borne pests that feed on one family of plants are hindered as their food source is not in the same location every year.
Farmers who practice crop rotation do not need to let beds or fields lie fallow (crop-free) as often as they might otherwise.
Biological Pest Control
The agricultural field contains a mixture of the organism, some of which are used for plant cultivation and some are damaging. The development of these organisms should be under control to guarantee the protection of the field and the crops. Pesticides and herbicides that comprise fewer chemicals or natural can be used for pest control. A process in which living organisms are used to control pests, without or with limited use of chemicals.
It refers to the dying plants that are uprooted and stuffed into the soil to make them act as a nutrient for the soil to make them act as a nutrient for the soil to increase its quality. Green undecomposed material used as manure is known as green manure. It is obtained in two ways they are; by growing green manure crops or by collecting green leaf from plants grown in wastelands, fields bunds, and forest. Green manuring is growing in the field plants belonging to the leguminous family and incorporating into the soil after sufficient growth.
Organic agriculture encourages the use of natural ways to enhance the farm, plants, and the soil; there is a discouragement of genetically engineered animals and plants. Thus, genetic modification is kept out of this agriculture. Though, there is an argument keeping in mind that the pollen present in such modified crops is present in the stock of seeds used for organic agriculture, making it impossible to keep completely out of organic agriculture.
Organic agriculture is being conducted by many countries with the rejection of using methods and chemicals that harm animals, crops, soil, environment, and even human health. Organic farming is based on the living ecological systems and cycles, work with them, emulate them, and help sustain them. Thus, such a process or agriculture should be encouraged since it acts as a protective shield to all the main factors that form the planet.
Methods of Organic Farming [Retrieved from www.agrifarming.in on 10th, August 14, 2020]
Organic Farming in Africa [Retrieved from www.civileats.com on 09th, August]